The Civil Code Law No. 91/2015/QH13

The Civil Code Law No. 91/2015/QH13

Bộ luật Dân sự 2015 bản tiếng Anh - The Civil Code Law No. 91/2015/QH13 với nhiều điểm mới sửa đổi, bổ sung một số điều và thay thế nhiều điểm mới so với Bộ luật Dân sự 2005. Để đáp ứng nhu cầu của bạn đọc, xin giới thiệu bản tiếng Anh tới các bạn đọc giả trong và ngoài nước với nội dung chi tiết như dưới đây.

Bộ Luật dân sự số 91/2015/QH13

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The construction law no. 50/2014/QH13

Luật bảo vệ môi trường số 55/2014/QH13

Independence - Freedom - Happiness
The Law No. 91/2015/QH13 Hanoi, November 24, 2015


Pursuant to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;

The National Assembly promulgates a Civil Code.



Chapter I


Article 1. Scope

The Civil Code provides the legal status, legal standards for the conduct of natural and juridical persons; the rights and obligations of natural and juridical person (hereinafter referred to as persons) regarding personal and property rights and obligations in relations established on the basis of equality, freedom of will, independence of property and self-responsibility (hereinafter referred to as civil relations).

Article 2. Recognition, respect, protection and guarantee of civil rights

1. In the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, all civil rights are recognized, respected, protected and guaranteed under the Constitution and law.

2. Civil rights may be limited as prescribed in law in exceptional circumstances that due to national defense and security, social safety and order, social ethics and the community's health.

Article 3. Basic principles of civil law

1. Every person shall be equal in civil relations, may not use any reason for unequal treatment to others, and enjoy the same protection policies of law regarding moral rights and economic rights.

2. Each person establishes, exercises/fulfills and terminates his/her civil rights and obligations on the basis of freely and voluntarily entering into commitments and/or agreements. Each commitment or agreement that does not violate regulations of law and is not contrary to social ethics shall be bound by contracting parties and must be respected by other entities.

3. Each person must establish, exercise/ fulfill, or terminate his/her civil rights and/or obligations in the principle of goodwill and honesty.

4. The establishment, exercise and termination of civil rights and/or obligations may not infringe national interests, pubic interests, lawful rights and interests of other persons.

5. Each person shall be liable for his/her failure to fulfill or the incorrect fulfillment of any such civil obligations.

Article 4. Application of the Civil Code

1. This Law is a common law that applies to civil relations.

2. Any relevant law that applies to civil relations in specific fields may not be contrary to the basic principle of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Law.

3. If another relevant law has no regulation or has regulations that infringe Clause 2 of this Article, the regulations of this Law shall apply.

4. In cases where an international agreement to which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a signatory contains provisions different from the provisions of this Code with regard to a same matter, the provisions of such agreement shall apply.

Article 5. Application of practices

1. Practices mean rules of conduct obvious to define rights and obligations of persons in specific civil relations, forming and repeating in a long time, recognized and applying generally in a region, race, or a community or a field of civil.

2. In cases where it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties, practices may apply but they must not contravene the principles provided for in Article 3 of this Code.

Article 6. Application of analogy of law

1. In cases where a issue rises under scope of civil law which it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties nor, nor applied by practices, analogy of law shall apply.

2. In cases where it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties, practices may apply but they must not contravene the principles provided for in Article 3 of this Code.

Article 7. State policies on civil relations

1. The establishment, performance and termination of civil rights and obligations must ensure the preservation of national identities, respect and promote good customs, practices and traditions, solidarity, mutual affection and cooperation, the principle of every individual for the community and the community for every individual and the noble ethical values of ethnicities living together on Vietnamese soil.

2. In civil relations, the conciliation between contracting parties in accordance with regulations of law shall be encouraged.

Chapter II


Article 8. Bases for establishment of civil rights

Civil rights shall be established on the following bases:

1. Contracts;

2. Unilateral legal acts;

3. Decisions of courts or other competent state agencies as prescribed;

4. Outcomes of labor, production and business; or creation of subjects of intellectual property rights;

5. Possession of property;

6. Illegal use of assets or illegal gain therefrom;

7. Damage caused by an illegal act;

8. Performance of a task without authorization;

9. Other bases specified by law.

Article 9. Exercise of civil rights

1. Each person shall exercise his/her civil on his/her own will in accordance with Article 3 and Article 10 of this Code.

2. The non-exercise of civil rights does not constitute a basis for termination of those rights, unless otherwise prescribed by law.

Article 10. Limitations on exercise of civil rights

1. Each person may not abuse his/her own civil rights to cause damage to other persons or violate his/her own obligations or for other unlawful purposes.

2. If a person fails to comply with Clause 1 of this Article, a court or a competent agency shall, according to the nature and consequences of the violation, either protect part or the whole of his/her rights, compel him/her to given compensation and other sanctions as prescribed by law.

Article 11. Methods for protecting civil rights

If a person has his/her civil rights violated, he/she may protect them himself/herself as prescribed in this Code, other relevant laws or request competent authorities to:

1. Recognize, respect, protect and guarantee of his/her civil rights;

2. Order the termination of the act of violation;

3. Order a public apology and/or rectification;

4. Order the performance of civil obligations;

5. Order compensation for damage;

6. Cancellation of isolated unlawful decision of competent agencies, organizations or persons;

7. Other requirements specified by law.

Article 12. Self-protection of civil rights

The self-protection of a particular civil right must conform to the nature and severity of the violation against such civil right and be not contrary to basic principles of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Code.

Article 13. Compensation for damage

Each person has his/her civil rights violated shall be eligible for total damage, unless otherwise agreed by parties or unless otherwise prescribed by law.

Article 14. Protection of civil rights by competent authorities

1. Each court and a competent authority must respect and protect civil rights of persons.

If a particular civil right is violated or is under a dispute, the protection of such right shall be implemented as prescribed in procedural law at the court or arbitrator.

The protection of civil rights under administrative procedures shall be implemented as prescribed by law. A decision on settlement of case/matter under administrative procedures may be re-examined at a court.

2. Each court may not refuse to settle a civil matter or case with the season that there is no provision of law to apply; in this case, regulations in Article 5 and Article 6 of this Code shall apply.

Article 15. Cancellation of isolated unlawful decisions of competent agencies, organizations or persons

A court or a competent authority is entitled to cancel an isolated decision of another competent agency, organization or person, upon a request for protection of civil rights.

If the isolated decision is cancelled, the civil right against which the decision violates shall be restored and protected by the methods prescribed in Article 11 of this Code.

Chapter III



Article 16. Legal personality of natural persons

1. The legal personality of a natural person is his/her capability to have civil rights and civil obligations.

2. All individuals shall have the same legal personality.

3. The legal personality of a natural person commences at birth and terminates at death.

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